Wie man

Install Ceph 15 (Octopus) Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04

Install Ceph 15 (Octopus) Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04

I've been planning on putting together an article covering installation of Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux servers and this is the delivery day. Ceph is software defined storage solution designed for building distributed storage clusters on commodity hardware. The requirements for building Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04 will depend largely on the desired use case.

This setup is not for running mission critical intense write applications. You may need to consult official project documentation for such requirements especially on networking and storage hardware. Below are the standard Ceph components that will be configured in this installation guide:

Install Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04

Before you begin the deployment of Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux servers you need to prepare the servers needed. Below is a picture of my servers ready for setup.

As seen in the picture, my Lab have the following server names and IP addresses.

Server HostnameServer IP AddressCeph componentsServer Specs
ceph-mon-01172.16.20.10Ceph MON, MGR,MDS8gb ram, 4vpcus
ceph-mon-02172.16.20.11Ceph MON, MGR,MDS8gb ram, 4vpcus
ceph-mon-03172.16.20.12Ceph MON, MGR,MDS8gb ram, 4vpcus
ceph-osd-01172.16.20.13Ceph OSD16gb ram, 8vpcus
ceph-osd-02172.16.20.14Ceph OSD16gb ram, 8vpcus
ceph-osd-03172.16.20.15Ceph OSD16gb ram, 8vpcus

Step 1: Prepare first Monitor node

The ceph component used for deployment is Cephadm. Cephadm deploys and manages a Ceph cluster by connection to hosts from the manager daemon via SSH to add, remove, or update Ceph daemon containers.

Login to your first Monitor node:

$ ssh [email protected] Warning: Permanently added 'ceph-mon-01,172.16.20.10' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts. Enter passphrase for key '/var/home/jkmutai/.ssh/id_rsa': Welcome to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-33-generic x86_64) * Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com * Management: https://landscape.canonical.com * Support: https://ubuntu.com/advantage Last login: Tue Jun 2 20:36:36 2020 from 172.16.20.10 [email protected]:~# 

Update /etc/hosts file with the entries for all the IP addresses and hostnames.

# vim /etc/hosts 127.0.0.1 localhost # Ceph nodes 172.16.20.10 ceph-mon-01 172.16.20.11 ceph-mon-02 172.16.20.12 ceph-mon-03 172.16.20.13 ceph-osd-01 172.16.20.14 ceph-osd-02 172.16.20.15 ceph-osd-03

Update and upgrade OS:

sudo apt update && sudo apt -y upgrade sudo systemctl reboot

Install Ansible and other basic utilities:

sudo apt update sudo apt -y install software-properties-common git curl vim bash-completion ansible

Confirm Ansible has been installed.

$ ansible --version ansible 2.9.6 config file = /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg configured module search path = ['/root/.ansible/plugins/modules', '/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules'] ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/ansible executable location = /usr/bin/ansible python version = 3.8.2 (default, Apr 27 2020, 15:53:34) [GCC 9.3.0]

Ensure /usr/local/bin path is added to PATH.

echo "PATH=\$PATH:/usr/local/bin" >>~/.bashrc source ~/.bashrc 

Check your current PATH:

$ echo $PATH /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/usr/local/bin

Generate SSH keys:

$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N"-f ~/.ssh/id_rsa Generating public/private rsa key pair. Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub The key fingerprint is: SHA256:3gGoZCVsA6jbnBuMIpnJilCiblaM9qc5Xk38V7lfJ6U [email protected] The key's randomart image is: +---[RSA 4096]----+ |… o… | |. +o . | |… o… | |o .o… | |o%o… oS . o .| |@+*o o… o | |O oo .… E o| |o+.oo… o| |o .++ . | +----[SHA256]-----+

Install Cephadm:

curl --silent --remote-name --location https://github.com/ceph/ceph/raw/octopus/src/cephadm/cephadm chmod +x cephadm sudo mv cephadm /usr/local/bin/ 

Confirm cephadm is available for use locally:

$ cephadm --help

Step 2: Update all Ceph nodes and push ssh public key

With the first Mon node configured, create an ansible playbook to update all nodes, and push ssh public key and update /etc/hosts file in all nodes.

cd ~/ vim prepare-ceph-nodes.yml

Modify below contents to set correct timezone and add to the file.

--- - name: Prepare ceph nodes hosts: ceph_nodes become: yes become_method: sudo vars: ceph_admin_user: cephadmin tasks: - name: Set timezone timezone: name: Africa/Nairobi - name: Update system apt: name: "*" state: latest update_cache: yes - name: Install common packages apt: name: [vim,git,bash-completion,wget,curl,chrony] state: present update_cache: yes - name: Set authorized key taken from file to root user authorized_key: user: root state: present key: " lookup('file', '~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub') " - name: Install Docker shell: | curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo apt-key add - echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu focal stable" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker-ce.list apt update apt install -qq -y docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io - name: Reboot server after update and configs reboot:

Create inventory file.

$ vim hosts [ceph_nodes] ceph-mon-01 ceph-mon-02 ceph-mon-03 ceph-osd-01 ceph-osd-02 ceph-osd-03 

Save key passphrase if you use one.

$ eval 'ssh-agent -s' && ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa_jmutai Agent pid 3275 Enter passphrase for /root/.ssh/id_rsa_jmutai: Identity added: /root/.ssh/id_rsa_jkmutai (/root/.ssh/id_rsa_jmutai)

Configure ssh:

tee -a ~/.ssh/config<

Execute Playbook:

# As root user with default ssh key: $ ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --user root # As root user with password: $ ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --user root --ask-pass # As sudo user with password - replace ubuntu with correct username $ ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --user ubuntu --ask-pass --ask-become-pass # As sudo user with ssh key and sudo password - replace ubuntu with correct username $ ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --user ubuntu --ask-become-pass # As sudo user with ssh key and passwordless sudo - replace ubuntu with correct username $ ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --user ubuntu --ask-become-pass # As sudo or root user with custom key $ ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --private-key /path/to/private/key 

In my case I'll run:

$ ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --private-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa_jkmutai

Execution output:

 ansible-playbook -i hosts prepare-ceph-nodes.yml --private-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa_jmutai PLAY [Prepare ceph nodes] ****************************************************************************************************************************** TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************************************************************************************* ok: [ceph-mon-03] ok: [ceph-mon-02] ok: [ceph-mon-01] ok: [ceph-osd-01] ok: [ceph-osd-02] ok: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Update system] *********************************************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Install common packages] ************************************************************************************************************************* changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Add ceph admin user] ***************************************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Create sudo file] ******************************************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Give ceph admin user passwordless sudo] ********************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Set authorized key taken from file to ceph admin] ************************************************************************************************ changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Set authorized key taken from file to root user] ************************************************************************************************* changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Install Docker] ********************************************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Reboot server after update and configs] ********************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-03] PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************************************************************************************* ceph-mon-01 : ok=9 changed=8 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-mon-02 : ok=9 changed=8 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-mon-03 : ok=9 changed=8 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-osd-01 : ok=9 changed=8 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-osd-02 : ok=9 changed=8 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-osd-03 : ok=9 changed=8 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 

Test ssh as Ceph admin user created on the nodes:

$ ssh [email protected]2 Warning: Permanently added 'ceph-mon-02,172.16.20.11' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts. Welcome to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-28-generic x86_64) * Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com * Management: https://landscape.canonical.com * Support: https://ubuntu.com/advantage The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright. Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law. To run a command as administrator (user "root"), use "sudo ". See "man sudo_root" for details. [email protected]:~$ sudo su - [email protected]:~# logout [email protected]:~$ exit logout Connection to ceph-mon-01 closed.

Configure /etc/hosts

Update /etc/hosts on all nodes if you don't active DNS configured for hostnames on all cluster servers.

Here is the playbook to modify:

$ vim update-hosts.yml --- - name: Prepare ceph nodes hosts: ceph_nodes become: yes become_method: sudo tasks: - name: Clean /etc/hosts file copy: content: "" dest: /etc/hosts - name: Update /etc/hosts file blockinfile: path: /etc/hosts block: | 127.0.0.1 localhost 172.16.20.10 ceph-mon-01 172.16.20.11 ceph-mon-02 172.16.20.12 ceph-mon-03 172.16.20.13 ceph-osd-01 172.16.20.14 ceph-osd-02 172.16.20.15 ceph-osd-03 

Running playbook:

$ ansible-playbook -i hosts update-hosts.yml --private-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa_jmutai PLAY [Prepare ceph nodes] ****************************************************************************************************************************** TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************************************************************************************* ok: [ceph-mon-01] ok: [ceph-osd-02] ok: [ceph-mon-03] ok: [ceph-mon-02] ok: [ceph-osd-01] ok: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Clean /etc/hosts file] *************************************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-03] TASK [Update /etc/hosts file] ************************************************************************************************************************** changed: [ceph-mon-02] changed: [ceph-mon-01] changed: [ceph-osd-01] changed: [ceph-osd-02] changed: [ceph-mon-03] changed: [ceph-osd-03] PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************************************************************************************* ceph-mon-01 : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-mon-02 : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-mon-03 : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-osd-01 : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-osd-02 : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 ceph-osd-03 : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=0 rescued=0 ignored=0 

Confirm:

$ ssh [email protected] $ cat /etc/hosts # BEGIN ANSIBLE MANAGED BLOCK 127.0.0.1 localhost 172.16.20.10 ceph-mon-01 172.16.20.11 ceph-mon-02 172.16.20.12 ceph-mon-03 172.16.20.13 ceph-osd-01 172.16.20.14 ceph-osd-02 172.16.20.15 ceph-osd-03 # END ANSIBLE MANAGED BLOCK

Step 3: Deploy Ceph 15 (Octopus) Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04

To bootstrap a new Ceph Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04, you need the first monitor address - IP or hostname.

sudo mkdir -p /etc/ceph cephadm bootstrap \ --mon-ip ceph-mon-01 \ --initial-dashboard-user admin \ --initial-dashboard-password [email protected]

Execution output:

INFO:cephadm:Verifying podman|docker is present… INFO:cephadm:Verifying lvm2 is present… INFO:cephadm:Verifying time synchronization is in place… INFO:cephadm:Unit chrony.service is enabled and running INFO:cephadm:Repeating the final host check… INFO:cephadm:podman|docker (/usr/bin/docker) is present INFO:cephadm:systemctl is present INFO:cephadm:lvcreate is present INFO:cephadm:Unit chrony.service is enabled and running INFO:cephadm:Host looks OK INFO:root:Cluster fsid: 8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee INFO:cephadm:Verifying IP 172.16.20.10 port 3300… INFO:cephadm:Verifying IP 172.16.20.10 port 6789… INFO:cephadm:Mon IP 172.16.20.10 is in CIDR network 172.31.1.1 INFO:cephadm:Pulling latest docker.io/ceph/ceph:v15 container… INFO:cephadm:Extracting ceph user uid/gid from container image… INFO:cephadm:Creating initial keys… INFO:cephadm:Creating initial monmap… INFO:cephadm:Creating mon… INFO:cephadm:Waiting for mon to start… INFO:cephadm:Waiting for mon… INFO:cephadm:mon is available INFO:cephadm:Assimilating anything we can from ceph.conf… INFO:cephadm:Generating new minimal ceph.conf… INFO:cephadm:Restarting the monitor… INFO:cephadm:Setting mon public_network… INFO:cephadm:Creating mgr… INFO:cephadm:Wrote keyring to /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring INFO:cephadm:Wrote config to /etc/ceph/ceph.conf INFO:cephadm:Waiting for mgr to start… INFO:cephadm:Waiting for mgr… INFO:cephadm:mgr not available, waiting (1/10)… INFO:cephadm:mgr not available, waiting (2/10)… INFO:cephadm:mgr not available, waiting (3/10)… INFO:cephadm:mgr not available, waiting (4/10)… INFO:cephadm:mgr is available INFO:cephadm:Enabling cephadm module… INFO:cephadm:Waiting for the mgr to restart… INFO:cephadm:Waiting for Mgr epoch 5… INFO:cephadm:Mgr epoch 5 is available INFO:cephadm:Setting orchestrator backend to cephadm… INFO:cephadm:Generating ssh key… INFO:cephadm:Wrote public SSH key to to /etc/ceph/ceph.pub INFO:cephadm:Adding key to [email protected]'s authorized_keys… INFO:cephadm:Adding host ceph-mon-01… INFO:cephadm:Deploying mon service with default placement… INFO:cephadm:Deploying mgr service with default placement… INFO:cephadm:Deploying crash service with default placement… INFO:cephadm:Enabling mgr prometheus module… INFO:cephadm:Deploying prometheus service with default placement… INFO:cephadm:Deploying grafana service with default placement… INFO:cephadm:Deploying node-exporter service with default placement… INFO:cephadm:Deploying alertmanager service with default placement… INFO:cephadm:Enabling the dashboard module… INFO:cephadm:Waiting for the mgr to restart… INFO:cephadm:Waiting for Mgr epoch 13… INFO:cephadm:Mgr epoch 13 is available INFO:cephadm:Generating a dashboard self-signed certificate… INFO:cephadm:Creating initial admin user… INFO:cephadm:Fetching dashboard port number… INFO:cephadm:Ceph Dashboard is now available at: URL: https://ceph-mon-01:8443/ User: admin Password: [email protected] INFO:cephadm:You can access the Ceph CLI with: sudo /usr/local/bin/cephadm shell --fsid 8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee -c /etc/ceph/ceph.conf -k /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring INFO:cephadm:Please consider enabling telemetry to help improve Ceph: ceph telemetry on For more information see: https://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/mgr/telemetry/ INFO:cephadm:Bootstrap complete. 

Install Ceph tools.

cephadm add-repo --release octopus cephadm install ceph-common

Add extra monitors if you have them.

--- Copy Ceph SSH key --- ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected] ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected] --- Label the nodes with mon --- ceph orch host label add ceph-mon-01 mon ceph orch host label add ceph-mon-02 mon ceph orch host label add ceph-mon-03 mon --- Add nodes to the cluster --- ceph orch host add ceph-mon-02 ceph orch host add ceph-mon-03 --- Apply configs --- ceph orch apply mon ceph-mon-02 ceph orch apply mon ceph-mon-03

View a list of hosts and labels.

# ceph orch host ls HOST ADDR LABELS STATUS ceph-mon-01 ceph-mon-01 mon ceph-mon-02 ceph-mon-02 mon ceph-mon-03 ceph-mon-03 mon

Containers running:

# docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 7d666ae63232 prom/alertmanager "/bin/alertmanager -… " 3 minutes ago Up 3 minutes ceph-8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee-alertmanager.ceph-mon-01 4e7ccde697c7 prom/prometheus:latest "/bin/prometheus --c… " 3 minutes ago Up 3 minutes ceph-8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee-prometheus.ceph-mon-01 9fe169a3f2dc ceph/ceph-grafana:latest "/bin/sh -c 'grafana… " 8 minutes ago Up 8 minutes ceph-8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee-grafana.ceph-mon-01 c8e99deb55a4 prom/node-exporter "/bin/node_exporter… " 8 minutes ago Up 8 minutes ceph-8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee-node-exporter.ceph-mon-01 277f0ef7dd9d ceph/ceph:v15 "/usr/bin/ceph-crash… " 9 minutes ago Up 9 minutes ceph-8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee-crash.ceph-mon-01 9de7a86857aa ceph/ceph:v15 "/usr/bin/ceph-mgr -… " 10 minutes ago Up 10 minutes ceph-8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee-mgr.ceph-mon-01.qhokxo d116bc14109c ceph/ceph:v15 "/usr/bin/ceph-mon -… " 10 minutes ago Up 10 minutes ceph-8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee-mon.ceph-mon-01

Step 4: Deploy Ceph OSDs

Install the cluster's public SSH key in the new OSD nodes root user's authorized_keys file:

ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected] ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected] ssh-copy-id -f -i /etc/ceph/ceph.pub [email protected]

Tell Ceph that the new node is part of the cluster:

--- Add hosts to cluster --- ceph orch host add ceph-osd-01 ceph orch host add ceph-osd-02 ceph orch host add ceph-osd-03 --- Give new nodes labels --- ceph orch host label add ceph-osd-01 osd ceph orch host label add ceph-osd-02 osd ceph orch host label add ceph-osd-03 osd

View all devices on storage nodes:

# ceph orch device ls HOST PATH TYPE SIZE DEVICE AVAIL REJECT REASONS ceph-mon-01 /dev/sda hdd 76.2G QEMU_HARDDISK_drive-scsi0-0-0-0 False locked ceph-mon-02 /dev/sda hdd 76.2G QEMU_HARDDISK_drive-scsi0-0-0-0 False locked ceph-mon-03 /dev/sda hdd 76.2G QEMU_HARDDISK_drive-scsi0-0-0-0 False locked ceph-osd-01 /dev/sdb hdd 50.0G HC_Volume_5680482 True ceph-osd-01 /dev/sda hdd 76.2G QEMU_HARDDISK_drive-scsi0-0-0-0 False locked ceph-osd-02 /dev/sdb hdd 50.0G HC_Volume_5680484 True ceph-osd-02 /dev/sda hdd 76.2G QEMU_HARDDISK_drive-scsi0-0-0-0 False locked ceph-osd-03 /dev/sdb hdd 50.0G HC_Volume_5680483 True ceph-osd-03 /dev/sda hdd 76.2G QEMU_HARDDISK_drive-scsi0-0-0-0 False locked 

A storage device is considered available if all of the following conditions are met:

Tell Ceph to consume any available and unused storage device:

# ceph orch daemon add osd ceph-osd-01:/dev/sdb Created osd(s) 0 on host 'ceph-osd-01' # ceph orch daemon add osd ceph-osd-02:/dev/sdb Created osd(s) 1 on host 'ceph-osd-02' # ceph orch daemon add osd ceph-osd-03:/dev/sdb Created osd(s) 1 on host 'ceph-osd-03'

Check ceph status:

# ceph -s cluster: id: 8dbf2eda-a513-11ea-a3c1-a534e03850ee health: HEALTH_OK services: mon: 1 daemons, quorum ceph-mon-01 (age 23m) mgr: ceph-mon-01.qhokxo(active, since 22m), standbys: ceph-mon-03.rhhvzc osd: 3 osds: 3 up (since 36s), 3 in (since 36s) data: pools: 1 pools, 1 pgs objects: 1 objects, 0 B usage: 3.0 GiB used, 147 GiB / 150 GiB avail pgs: 1 active+clean

Step 5: Access Ceph Dashboard

Ceph Dashboard is now available at the Address of active MGR server.

# ceph -s

For the this will be:

URL: https://ceph-mon-01:8443/ User: admin Password: [email protected]

Login with the credentials to access Ceph management dashboard.

Enjoy management of Ceph Storage Cluster on Ubuntu 20.04 using Cephadm and Containers. Our next articles will cover on adding additional OSDs, removing them, configuring RGW e.t.c. Stay connected for updates.

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